Tour of the Tu-114
In March 1955 it was granted the government the task of designing a long-haul passenger aircraft. For large flight was not just looking for a powerful, economical and roomy, but quite reliable liner with exhaust systems, engine and airframe. Moreover, that the government needed to create long-range passenger aircraft as soon as possible, do not allow for much testing and modification.
As always, the pioneers began to Tupolev. Already having the experience of alteration of military aircraft in civilian (Tu-16 - Tu-104), Tupolev immediately chose a prototype of the new machine - well-proven bomber Tu-95.
Tu-114 made very quickly - in just two years. He was a leading designer NI Bazenkov. November 15, 1957 test pilot AP Yakimov first raised the Tu-114 in the air, and began flight tests.
Despite the huge amount of testing, adjusted based on the design allowed to quickly organize a "bride" of the aircraft. The first demonstration flight to New York on an airplane L-5611 number made in 1958 (and in the stunned New York, there was not a suitable ramp or a tractor), and May 19, 1959 the crew AP Yakimov, MA . Nyuhtikova IK Vedernikov involving KP Sapelkina made its first demonstration flight to Khabarovsk with passengers on board. The flight was a non-profit: the passengers were, along with journalists, mainly aviation specialists.
aircraft reliability has been so high that in 1959 it was also carried out an unprecedented action, which has no parallel in the history of world aviation: by plane, performance tests have not yet been completed, moved the government of the USSR, headed by Nikita Khrushchev in Washington . The first regular passenger flight to Khabarovsk was made from Vnukovo, April 24, 1961. A special place in the history of this aircraft take flights to Cuba. And in 1967 it began a joint operation of aircrafts on the route from Moscow to Tokyo together with airline "Jal". Flight jointly served the Japanese and Soviet flight attendants, received special training. Aircraft (two cars were converted) have outer symbols as "Aeroflot" and "Jal".
After entering the international routes IL-62, Tu-114 aircraft, having lost the status leader of "Aeroflot", the entire fleet were converted from Sheremetyevo to Domodedovo. There are 220-seat version of regular flights to Almaty, Tashkent, Novosibirsk and Khabarovsk, where there were long strips. The aircraft behaved as reliable as in the 1960s.
Nickname "Dragon" (Novosibirsk), or "Shaitan Arba" (Alma-Ata) were purely humorous, but not mocking. Occasionally there were cases of engine failures, not led to any serious consequences. There was the case of an emergency landing with faulty landing gear in Domodedovo, too, ended happily.
However, after the majority of the operating time flying machines no more than 15,000 hours (there were cracks in the power panel engines, modifications and repairs have decided not to deal with) all aircraft Tu-114 in November 1976 were taken out of service and decommissioned no later than the summer of 1977. Immediately the car was cut 21 (all were released 31), and a few cars continued to be used Air Force of the Soviet Union until 1991.
And now look at the first flying machine.
Tu-114CSSR-L5611, first flew on 15 November 1957. Unlike the Tu-95, Tu-114 was designed as a nizkoplan, forcing designers to significantly increase the height of the landing gear (around the front support, you can find a person for scale), with the result that it became significantly higher than other civilian aircraft. It later added problems in the operation of the ship. But he is very handsome.
has four turboprop NK-12MV with two coaxial counter-rotating propellers AV-60 on each. Total power takeoff on the engine mode is 60 thousand. L. from. when the hourly fuel consumption not more than 5600 kg (the first hour of flight), which by current standards for aircraft of this size is very economical.
two cars were lost in the operation. Nearly new board broke in half in the parking lot at Vnukovo because of flight engineer mistakes started to clean the chassis with crimped struts. A single accident occurred February 17, 1966 at Sheremetyevo because of making a wrong decision to make off in bad weather at night, cleared of snow is not the full width of the runway.
Typically Soviet catastrophe. The plane was flying to Brazzaville (Congo), to Africa, where it was planned to transport the delegation to the acceptance of the aerodrome. The weather was not favorable for a few days - a blizzard drifts Sheremetyevskaya band visibility due to fog, are the waves, was extremely limited. However, political ambition and a desire to preserve the honor of the big bosses of the uniform industry has led to the dismissal of captain VA Filonov from the decision to take off, and thus contributed to the crash.
The strip was cleared, but not across the entire width, and 40 meters. As a result of snow blowers on the runway edges formed snowy parapets, severely hampered the visibility of lights from the cockpit. Thus, the pilot can maintain direction run (and was carried off at night) almost exclusively for the course unit. VA Filonov before the actual start of the run could not have known or even guess.
After the start of the run, when it became clear that the runway lights are hardly visible (lights up), rejected takeoff was too late. VA Filonov masterfully sustained direction strictly on the runway axis alone navigation device clockwise - as subsequent measurements, the deviation was not more than a degree that is literally the limit pilot opportunities. And only at the end of the run poorly trained band still played a fateful role - left chassis truck already grazed apart for one of the parapets of snow, which caused a strong throw to the left of the aircraft with the nose lowering. The pilot, fending off, given the right bank, the third and fourth engine bolts hit the cover strip and collided with the ground, resulting in the complete destruction of ... killing many passengers and crew members, including the captain. Some fortunate enough to survive for various reasons, are particularly at the tail of the aircraft.
It was jet layout with three classes: economy class (conventional chairs 3 + 3), the first class (rows of seats separated tables with lamp) and finally four compartments - these compartments, as in the train, but in three beds. Plane tickets cost the classes, though with a slight difference.
If the original aircraft was calculated for 120 passengers, is followed in the 1960-1970-ies. transport shaft has exceeded all conceivable projections, long consigned to oblivion on our domestic routes any arrangement other than economy class. The maximum capacity of the Tu-114 reached 224 seats. It was at that time the most spacious airliner "Aeroflot".
The first class. Upholstery of chairs, tables and other furniture were restored by volunteers in the museum. If you look closely, then down the aisle visible step on the floor (there goes the center section), which does not add comfort for the flight attendants.
The aircraft in very bright and very unusual in layout to the current time.
Two deck scheme (layout of the fuselage: the bottom - kitchen, baggage and cargo and crew rest room, at the top - the crew and passengers), which became the primary in the design of modern jumbo jets, was introduced on the Tu-114. Curiously, the kitchen was combined with a buffet lift, as IL-86. The staffing of the crew of the first half of the 60s was the cook.
Cabin first Tu-114 was performed without the influence of interior compartment cars of long-distance trains and ocean liners sea. Therefore comfort on the Tu-114 seemed an ordinary Soviet citizen of the time (not spoiled facilities) are also somehow extraordinary.
One of the coupe. As they say, there were three beds - with two transverse and one longitudinal flanges. I honestly do not really understand how they settled there.
The passengers of the Tu-114, after sitting in the compartment at a table near the window the first hour of the flight, got down pillows, blankets and sheets, and went to bed.
In general, I had a feeling that I am, rather, on an ocean liner than in an airplane.
Set refurbished seats in the cabin. The restoration works lasted two years.
modification of the Tu-114A, which, according to VG Deloveri, "provides a significant improvement in flight performance of the machine by changing the profile and the mechanization of the wing" was developed in the 1970s. Unfortunately, the Tu-114A project was not implemented. Also I did not find the use of a number of modifications and improvements, which were identified - had no interest in them. Those innovations are still there - it had been agreed with great difficulty.
In the area of comfort impression Tu-114 passenger spoiled rich low-frequency noise, which was particularly strong in the area of the screws in the first-class cabin. In the opinion of some experienced passengers, he allegedly tolerated a little easier than the IL-18, because it was not as penetrating. Again, after the piston aircraft such things seem trifles. Tu-114 began to lose his "image" in the eyes of the passengers only with the advent of long-distance routes low noise IL-62, when it was nothing to compare.
With very strong (steel spars!) And together with the flexible structure (the amplitude of oscillation of the wing, plus or minus 2 meters of ending), Tu-114 excellently tolerate even a strong turbulence. It was an indispensable quality when flying over the ocean during tropical storms and cyclones, or when crossing mountain ranges like the Himalayas.
And now go through to the cabin liner.
Workplace flight engineer. It is surprising the door into the cabin, which is more relevant in the ship into the sea than in the air.
Place the FAC. Below - a passage in the workplace navigator.
Often military navigators trained in flight on the Tu-114 for precise navigation is the pilots of "Aeroflot".
In my opinion, a very ascetic jobs that did not stop for hours to perform ultra-long flights both on the ground and above the oceans.
the total power available at engine power of 60,000 liters. from. It was sufficient for continued safe takeoff under standard conditions to limit takeoff weight of 173, 5 m with one engine after speed deciding. Anyway, when with a decrease in Domodedovo in DI Kuharenko the fault of a flight engineer with one failed engine was accidentally switched off the second on the same half-wings, the power of the other two and, of course, the brave commander composure was enough to secure plant seemed like losing a car. HN Tskhovrebov once had to distill the Tu-114 engines on three of Delhi over the Himalayas ...!
A bunch of toggle switches and pokazometrov.
Lockout generators. If necessary, the flight engineer, one movement cut off all eight generators.
Some of the navigator's equipment.
Dear visitors of the museum, take care of the exhibits!
Tu-114 remaining in lotnom condition, no.
It survived four flightless instance Tu-114:
- in the Central Museum of the Russian Air Force in Monino near Moscow it is the very first prototype aircraft USSR-L5611 (1 car);
- in the Ulyanovsk Museum of Civil Aviation 2 cars: the Tu-114CSSR-76490 (serial number 64M471) and Tu-116CSSR-76462 (serial number 7802);
- at the airport Aviation College in the city of Krivoy Rog (Ukraine) is stored Tu-114CSSR-76485 (serial number 63M461), which will be installed in the aviation Museum in Gostomel (Ukraine).