How to take in debt century ago
To borrow from the wealthy people began to borrowers before our era, when there were only commodity-money relations. Lenders have risked life and money, giving loans powerful monarchs and commoners to the payment of the debt were threatened with prison or debt bondage. What role in the banking industry has played church and monasteries, and under what percentages make loans - in our material.
from me to the bankers
The history of usury has its roots back centuries. Lending existed long before the appearance of the coins as such - there is a natural exchange, gold and silver were used. Usurers served the Egyptian Pharaohs, feel great in the Greek city, did business with Phoenician and Syrian merchants. After the collapse of the Roman Empire, its monetary system inherited the Byzantine Empire and the former "barbaric" to the provinces as an integral part of the high Roman culture.
However, it is worth noting that since ancient times (and in virtually all times) activity usury is condemned and was unpopular. Religious leaders and the authorities referred to their craft sinful and unacceptable. Money changers and money lenders have suffered, but continued to use their services. Attempts to prohibit the provision of money at interest have been many times (eg, Arabs in Islam), but did not give tangible results - lending continued to exist.
The need to exchange coins, it has made an adequate assessment of the profession have a special demand. Because in addition to the exchange of money changers doing more and money transfer operations, then they gradually began to turn into bankers. This is greatly fostered by the era of the Crusades, which brought with it the need to transfer large sums of money to finance the armies.
Who and how to count money in medieval Europe
Those who used the services of moneylenders, can be divided into two main categories: the peasants (and artisans), and the feudal nobility. The first loan was necessary first of all to pay taxes and rent. The villagers were forced to work off their debt (which they mercilessly exploited), the artisans had not only to sell their products at low prices, but sometimes lay themselves the means of production. In the role of moneylenders and rich peasants were posing their poorer brethren loans not only money, but also "in kind".
The nobles, including kings and emperors preferred to borrow money to buy luxury goods, or the content of the troops. But if small chivalry often go bankrupt, losing their money and possessions, passing into the hands of moneylenders, the feudal lords could with impunity not pay the bills. For example, Edward III of, to borrow from the Florentine bankers Bardi and Peruzzi large sum of gold (the king needed money for the war with France), simply refused to return the debt, which triggered the financial crisis.
In the XII - XIII centuries, Jews often acted as moneylenders. They are subjected to high levies that brought good income cities, where they worked. For the right to have at Jewish moneylenders even competed, it was viewed as a privilege. At first, take out loans they were cheaper than the local bankers (such as the Holy Roman Empire). On the other hand, the Jewish money-changers and merchants frequently became victims of religious intolerance towards other religions, skillfully warmed the church. Power and clergy are encouraged persecution.
The heyday of Venice and Genoa, Florence and Siena to a large extent was based on banking. The word "bank" derives from the banca - was the name of the table on which the medieval Italian moneychangers laid out their coins. Especially a lot of bank offices appeared in Lombardy, the word "Lombard" has become synonymous with the moneylender. Due to this the Pope permission to collect tithes bankers of these cities became the owners of capital rather impressive.
The main competitor of the Catholic Church acted in the financial field, to lend money not only kings, but also simple peasants. She does not charge interest for their services, but took a deposit - usually the ground, and tried hard to monopolize the credit activity, fighting against competitors by religious prohibitions and public censure. Defaulters threatened excommunication. On the other hand, the Order of the Templars received official permission to engage in financial transactions. At first, the knights themselves borrowed money from moneylenders Jews, but later Pope freed them from the need to repay these debts.
The Templars were more competitive: they were given loans at 10% per annum (compared with 40% in the Jewish moneylenders). Order not only to lend, but also took on the storage property, engaged in the exchange and transfer of funds, deposit operations. Becoming a veritable "state within a state", the Templars amassed himself many enemies. At the beginning of the XIV century, the French King Philip IV the Fair, with the support of the Pope announced Templar outlawed. Order was dissolved and its property confiscated.
Usury in Russia
In medieval Russia the financial centers were primarily monasteries. Although officially condemned usury (and not so much the fact of the loan, as the charging of interest), the clergy often engaged in such activities. Loans were made not only with money, but with natural products -.. Wheat, rye oats, etc. Interest is also often paid in kind equivalent.
Typically, loans are available for up to one year, and held in conjunction with its return to a religious holiday. Loans are processed by a special document - the so-called bondage. monasteries clientele included not only farmers, but also the landlords and the nobility. After the XVII century, the situation is slowly changing, and the main creditors of the clergy instead become merchants and wealthy citizens. In the XIX century it became common cash loans secured valuables (remember even the old woman money-lender of "Crime and Punishment"). By the beginning of XX century on the stage will have major credit unions and banks.
We should also say a few words on how to collect debts. If in medieval Russia money literally beaten out - for this was the so-called.. pravezh, is a very unpleasant procedure for the debtor, then later changed his debtor's prison, which lasted until 1917. As the confiscation of property.